It is now almost 50 years since the american doctor Robert Atkins (1930-2003) has released his famous diet, characterized by the elimination of a brutal carbohydrates (rice, bread, pasta...) and by a greater permissiveness in relation to fats. From there to here, menus and the like were lurking in the dish, now reaching popularity, now falling into disuse. The wave of time, darling between those who want to lose weight without delay, it is known as low carb, a term in English for a meal with too little carbohydrate. According to Google, the main site search on the internet, it was the diet the most sought-after in 2017 by the brazilians, with an increase of 986% from 2016.
Not need to spend your time browsing how much carbohydrate is allowed in this model food. There is no consensus on this – which makes it difficult, from a scientific point of view, to reach conclusions about the method. In general, we speak of a consumption of 20 to 40% of the nutrients in relation to calories eaten in a day, or somewhere around 50 to 100 grams. On a traditional diet, your sources should represent 55 to 65 percent of daily calories. It is a low considerable.
At the tip of the pencil
The traditional diet
Indicates that 55 to 65% of the calories consumed daily are sources of carbohydrates.
Diet low carb
Of all the calories ingested in the day, only 20 to 40 percent should come from the infamous nutrient.
But, more than bitolar in quantity, the low carb proposes to focus on the type of food chosen to meet this demand. People are encouraged to get their carbohydrates from vegetables and vegetables. Already grains, cereals, farinaceous, some fruit and everything that takes sugar out of the scene because of the high content of the substance. To get an idea, it is necessary to say goodbye to bread for breakfast and rice with beans for lunch. On the other side of the balance, what goes up is the intake strongholds of fats and proteins.
It is not difficult to explain why this menu has caused a stir among those who are concerned with the folds at the waist. “We know that diets low carb lead to a fast weight loss,” says the endocrinologist Bruno Halpern, of the Brazilian Association for the Study of Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome. Only this fact, so appreciated by the public, is not encouraging for the part of the experts in the area. In the view of Halpern, such as sources of proteins and fats satisfy enough people come to eat less – thus lose weight. The dilemma is that, according to him, these restrictive diets are less effective with time. There comes the accordion effect...
For Antonio Herbert Lancha, Jr., professor of nutrition School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo (USP), up to the slimming slight deserves a blind eye. This is because the sudden drop in the number that the scale displays would not mean necessarily a fat burning. Calm that the people explains the mystery.
Low carb and weight loss
The carbohydrate is one of the elements that determine the presence of water within our cells. Therefore, when the nutrient is missing, the fluid will go away. “People think that the variation of the weight comes from the fat elimination. But, in reality, they only lost water,” explains Lancha, Jr., that also is the author of the book The End of Dieting (Editora Abril). Worse: according to the experiments of the professor, in this cake the lean mass will also go to the space. And the muscles are precisely our greatest roasters of energy and body fat.
The endocrinologist Peter Assed, Rio de Janeiro, agrees that it is valid to put these issues on the agenda. After all, dehydrating, or see the muscles diminish is not anything desirable, despite the weight seem appropriate. “In these cases, you need to have a plan to revert the situation. And it involves adjustments in diet and other habits, such as sleep time and fast,“ describes the doctor.
So, the problem would not be on low carb in and of itself, but in fact it is to be performed without accompaniment. According to the nutritionist, and the neurologist Rafael Higashi, director of the clinic Higashi, in Rio de Janeiro, in case the professional does not have apparatus to check the rate of fat of the patient – such as the bioimpedance-can measure arm, calf and muscle strength. “If there is any loss in 30 days, there is something wrong”, it warns.
Any way, in terms of weight loss, is not to expect miracles. There is evidence that both makes investing in a low carb or a diet based on the reduction of fats or calories. “One of the assumptions for the weight loss is to expend more than you consume,” says nutritionist Ana Beatriz Barrella, RG Nutri, in the state capital. A review of several studies published from 2005 to 2016 on all of these strategies, researchers at the Mayo Clinic in the United States, concluded that the weight loss from the low carb would be insignificativamente greatest – thing 1 or 2 pounds.
The scientists stressed that it is only possible to ensure the safety of the method for six months, since most of the experiments is short-term. Outside of this, report that, in the work, does not to identify the quality sources of proteins and fats placed in the dish.
Therefore, it is highly contraindicated to consult the neighbour or the internet in time to assemble the menu. There are those who interpret, for example, that everything good to eat, day after day, bacon, steak, sausage and chicken with skin fried in lard. Remember: the negative impacts will in addition to the weight.
To load the hand in animal fat, for example, the consequences are not all pleasant. “This habit can get double the total cholesterol, the triple the LDL cholesterol and reduce by half the HDL,“ warns nutritionist Nágila Damasceno, researcher, Faculty of Public Health of USP and member of the Society of Cardiology of the State of São Paulo (Socesp). If you have lost in the acronyms, the us explains: while the LDL cholesterol that deposits fat in the arteries, the HDL the strip movement. Understood the turn?
According to the nutritionist clinic Isabella Vorccaro, the capital of são paulo, to minimize any threat, the ideal is to mainstream items such as olive oil, avocado, coconut, nuts and seeds, rich in unsaturated fats, recognised as the most beneficial. “They generate satiety and, at the same time, ofertam vitamins, minerals and fiber,“ he explains.
Written in hormones
For the advocates of the low carb, it is not surprising that other strategies – such as simply reducing the portion size of food – emagreçam in the same magnitude. But the claim to curb the carbohydrate does not stop there. “The excessive consumption of this nutrient leads to an overstimulation of the pancreas, with increased production of insulin,” says Isabella.
And the excess of this hormone is linked to a greater risk of getting fat and getting diabetes. Outside of this, the sugar derived from carbohydrate would help with the inflammatory processes, a situation which sponsors many diseases.
That have insulin to the mountains in the circulation is not cool, no one disagrees. But, for those who are not so fan of the low carb, other issues deserve discussion. To begin with, the production of the hormone is not incited only by the glucose derived from carbohydrates.
“Some proteins and fats and also stimulate this process”, explains the nutritionist Bruna Reis, and the Regional Council of Nutritionists – the 3rd Region (CRN-3). Soon, skip the rice from the buffet and mouth fall in fraldinha do not guarantee clearance to the pancreas – insulin production will also be instigated.
Nágila, Socesp, stresses that the hormone is part of a healthy metabolism, since it opens the doors for glucose, protein, and fat entering the tissues. “This story only becomes dangerous if eaten in excess”, warns nutritionist.
In this context, the pancreas produces so much insulin that, to protect itself, the tissues close. Occurs, thus, an increase in the hormone circulating and a greater resistance to its action. And, if the insulin does not work right, in fact plenty of sugar in the blood, a fuse for trouble. “But this is more for the abuse of the whole”, reiterates Nágila.
Boat Jr. also argues that it is evil to put the oscillation of insulin only in the back of the carbs. “Let's assume that 90% of your diet comes from bread. It's just that you consume all of this with a truckload of lettuce. Ready: the glycemic index is already compensated, as well as the release of insulin”, thinks. The example is surreal, of course, but it illustrates how the blood sugar spike a lot depends on what we bring to the meal.
There's another point: what counts for real is the quantity and type of carbohydrates chosen. All the experts agree that we inflate in foods that cause glucose and insulin to re – rice, and pasta refined, desserts and soft drinks are examples. Only that, instead of going to the extreme (low carb), the jump of the cat would be maneirar and replace these items for good versions of a nutrient, such as rice and whole grain pasta, grains, cereals and fruits.
Is that they are crowded with fiber, substances that brake the rise of glucose in the blood. “This, by itself, already changes the pattern of production of insulin,” adds the biologist and nutritionist Geraldo Thedei, of the University of Uberaba (MG).
There are more arguments favourable to trade, and not the radical break. “Some studies have shown that a diet restricted in carbohydrates, especially those rich in fiber, you can modify the diversity of bacteria in the intestine, which predisporia the inflammatory problems, such as allergies and autoimmune diseases,” says Bruna.
Now, for those who already received the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, the low carb may even be a way out to tame the blood sugar. The researcher Grant Brinkworth of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, in Australia, saw this facet of the diet closely. Experience with 115 diabetic patients, half followed a diet with low carbohydrate content (14% of daily calorie needs), while another part focused on the reduction of fats. “Although the two groups have lost weight in a similar way, those who adhered to the low carb managed to control the disease better,” says Brinkworth.
The nutritionist Maristela Strufaldi, of the Brazilian Society of Diabetes (SBD) confirms that some patients benefit greatly from the method – when well-made and individualized. However, it stresses that both the SBD as the international organizations that work with this audience prioritize a scenario of nutritional balance, in which there are, yes, room for the carbs. “Prevent terrorism nutrition is essential for adherence to treatment,” he argues.
If you have come this far without the sure if the low carb is a good investment, quiet. In the end, the best diet is the one feasible to be followed. “And it depends on the profile of the patient”, says Assed. The crucial is not to embark on fads without the guidance of a professional. He can assess, overall, if the diet is worth it. The first mistake is leave it up only at the discretion of the scale.
Ketogenic is another thing
This style of diet is a more radical low carb. In general, the consumption of carbohydrates to not more than 10%. Already the fat comes in at an incredible 90%. Nágila Damascus warns that this menu applies only to very specific situations, such as frames of epilepsy that do not respond to the remedies.
But there are people that walk by using the ketogenic diet to dry the belly. In the vision of Geraldo Thedei, of the University of Uberaba (MG), is a true nonsense. “There is high production of substances that change the pH of the blood. This brings risks for the organism”, alert. To complete, the menu is poor in vitamins, minerals, fibers... “this is a miseducation food”, the spikes Thedei.
Have to work out
If listen to so that low carb has helped so-and-so weight loss 30, 40, 50 pounds without physical activity, know this: there is no benefit in it. “Exercise is never dispensable,” says the nutritionist Isabella Vorccaro. “Well, one of the pillars of health,” he adds. What happens is that, when you cut your carbs, a lot of people feel unwell and tremendous. Normal, because the nutrient provides us with energy. The solution, however, is not to stop moving. Not if you clog of caffeine. “It produces no energy. Only disguises the fatigue,” says Gabriela Parise, nutritionist from RG Nutri. Out that get heavy in stimulants can lead to damage later.
WHAT YOU CAN EAT
The food groups below will give you an idea of what the pattern is low carb in practice
Without sugar, okay? Teas and water with lemon can also.
Natural yogurt, ricotta and cottage are options.
The oil of the olive has good fat.
Beef, chicken, fish... anything goes.
Of all types, at will.
Released in any meal.
Sweet potatoes and yams would be the best.
Fruits with low glycemic index
Avocado, coconut, strawberry and apricot are part of the list.
Chickpeas and lentils, but very sparingly.
Can vary and to invest without fear.
Taste almonds, chestnuts, walnuts...
WHAT IT IS BEST TO AVOID
The food and groups below are contraindicados in the diet low carb
The weak point is that it has no fat.
Have sugar to give and to sell.
Retire noodles, lasagne, gnocchi...
Are not considered real food.
In any recipe, it is vetoed.
It is the greatest symbol of the carb, right?
Have to avoid the natural and nectar.
It is quite similar to bread.
A real pit of sugar.
Fruits with high glycemic index
Banana, watermelon, mango, grape, and pineapple are examples.
Neither the full must sign in to the dish.
Has fewer fibers than the other tubers.